If a well produces water of poor quality, it is important to determine the exact cause of contamination. American Pump & Well Service & Repair recommends frequent testing if visual changes are noticed in the water, if you smell an odor from the water, if spotting occurs on laundry or if an unexplained health issue develops. It is also suggested to frequently test your water if a well is located near industrial sites and/or agricultural areas. As a rule, if water needs to be disinfected, using chemicals such as oxidizing agents like sodium or calcium hypochlorite, chloramines, chlorine and ozone, or UV radiation is recommended.
Here are some commonly used methods to treat your water:
Particle and Microfiltration
Particle filtration is a procedure that removes suspended particles ranging in size from sand to clay in water. It can be used to treat water for a home filtration system. This home filtration method however is not recommend to filter large amounts of particles. Large filtration systems located near the wellhead are available to remove well sediments and particulates. Microfiltration may be used to remove some bacteria and larger pathogens. To disinfect water with high concentrations of bacteria and viruses, other filtration methods such as Untrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis should be implemented.
Activated Carbon Filter
This form of ultrafiltration is often used to treat unwanted taste, odor and low concentrations of organic chemicals from water. This filtration method will also reduce radon gas and residual chlorine. Carbon filters will not remove major inorganic ions such as sodium, calcium, chloride, nitrate, fluoride or any other metals except lead, copper and mercury. If the water is cloudy, particle filters should be used before the activated carbon filter.
Distillation removes inorganic suspended mater including minerals and metals from water. Distillation removes micro-organisms as well as most pathogens. Volatile organic chemicals including benzene and TCE vaporize along with the water and contaminate the distilled water if not removed before the distillation. In some cases, home distillation systems use activated carbon filters to eliminate volatile organic chemicals during distillation.