Water Well

A water well is basically a hole in the ground created to access water that exists under the earth`s surface. The depth of the hole to access the water can vary considerably in different areas. The reason we go under the earth`s surface is that this water has passed through the earth`s composition, which acts as a natural filter, hopefully purifying the water. The water supply can be any of the following: very deep, shallow, clean, dirty, scarce and plentiful. In Arizona, specifically the Phoenix Valley, we have all of these conditions.

When it comes to having a well drilled, American Pump & Well Service & Repair recommends that you first be concerned about the trustworthiness and knowledge of the well driller; and then second be concerned about the cost. This is a hard concept for a lot of people to accept. However the old adage ¡°you get what you pay for¡± can very easily apply here.

A common well has two well casings. The outer casing is a tubular structure or large diameter steel pipe that encircles the actual well casing and is used as a surface seal. The surface seal casing is used to prevent surface pollutants from entering the well. At a minimum, the land surface or soils near the wellhead should slope away from the surface seal casing if a concrete apron is not present. The well casing prevents mixing of multiple aquifer zones. The most common materials for well casings are carbon steel and plastic. Some well casings may also be constructed of concrete, fiberglass and asbestos cement.

Water enters the well through slots in the casing called perforations. A gravel pack is typically used in space outside the screen casing but within the drilled borehole. Gravel packs consist of sand or gravel designed with finer-sized sand grains than the adjacent soils or unconsolidated aquifer material but larger than the screen slot size. Above the gravel pack, the space between the well casing and the borehole wall is back filled to prevent surface water from draining into the aquifer.

Attached to the surface seal casing should be a wellhead seal or cap. These are usually made of aluminum or a type of thermoplastic and are used with a vented screen so that the pressure difference inside of the well and the outside pressure may equalize when water is pumped out of the well.

American Pump & Well Service & Repair knows that a water well and its pumping system have to work flawlessly together to provide a safe and efficient source of water.

Once the water is located it has to be pumped from underneath the earth¡¯s surface. The volume of water coming out of the ground is dependent on the pumping capability of the pump that is placed at the bottom of the well as well as the availability of water in the well. This pump is suspended on a pipe through which the water is pumped up to above-ground level. In order to function, the submersible pump has an electric motor mounted to it. An electrical wire to supply power to the motor has to be inserted down the drop pipe to the motor from the surface.

So, there are four major components needed to operate a well: 1.) a pump; 2.) a pipe to suspend the pump and also carry the water above ground; 3.) an electrical motor to turn the pump; and 4.) an electrical wire to supply power to the motor.

If you are in a situation where a single well is designated to provide water to multiple properties, a well sharing agreement needs to be in force. While subject to statutory and regulatory requirements, it is a private contract executed by private parties involved. While Arizona water law governs how a well subject to a well sharing agreement is to be drilled and located, Arizona water law does not govern the operation or management of a well sharing agreement. Disputes regarding the terms of or compliance with a well sharing agreement are a civil matter between the parties involved. Resolution of the dispute may require arbitration or litigation between the parties.

If you are in a situation where a single well is designated to provide water to multiple properties, a well sharing agreement needs to be in force. While subject to statutory and regulatory requirements, it is a private contract executed by private parties involved. While Arizona water law governs how a well subject to a well sharing agreement is to be drilled and located, Arizona water law does not govern the operation or management of a well sharing agreement. Disputes regarding the terms of or compliance with a well sharing agreement are a civil matter between the parties involved. Resolution of the dispute may require arbitration or litigation between the parties.

Listed below is a link to the Arizona Department of Water Resources Web site. Between reading content on their site and contact with the ADWR staff you can get a lot of additional information and your questions answered.

Arizona Department of Water Resources

Additionally, here is another resource for pertinent water well information:

Arizona`s Well Owners Guide to Water Supply

In the Phoenix Valley, there are a number of locations and many instances where existing wells can and do run dry. Here is a link to learn more about low yielding wells:

Arizona Wells, Low Yielding Domestic Water Wells